History Map

The arid region of Balochistan, situated at the eastern end of the Iranian plateau, is split almost evenly between Pakistan’s Balochistan province and Iran’s Sistan-Baluchistan province (a small portion of the southern parts of Afghanistan’s Nimruz, Helmand, and Kandahar provinces are also part of Baluchistan).

Professor George Rawlinson (1812-1902) expounded the thesis that Balochs are decedents of Chaldeans. According to G. Rawlinson, Professor of ancient history at Oxford (U.K.), Baloch derived from “Balus,” the King of Babylon. He identified with “Nimrod” or Nibrodes, the son of Kush, of the Holy Write, founder of the Chaldean dynasty. He ruled about 2400 BC, and apart from the city of Babylon, he built cities of Nineveh, Caldah, Rehoboth, Ir, and Resume. Major Sykes took over Professor G Rawlinson’s thesis without any comment. All prominent Baloch writers like Sardar Khan Baloch, Mir Khuda Baksh Marri Baloch, and Gul Khan Nasser, Mir Alum Rakib and Baloch nationalists- the manifesto of Kalat State National Party (1936-1948). Sardar Khan traced the word “Baloch” to “Bel,” the god. He wrote that the worshipers of “Bel” the Babylonian god were elite crops of Babylon and concludes that Baloch belonged to the “royal family” of the Chaldeans, who introduced civilization to Media (northwestern Iran) and Persia.


The history of the first Baloch confederacy is unclear due to a lack of adequate records, and it usually relied on Baloch traditions, poetry, and writings of Baloch nationalists. In the 12th century, 44 tribes were forced to migrate from Seistan and Kerman to Makran under Mir Jalal Han (Khan). In Makran, Baloch fought with local muslin rulers and defeated them. Mir Jalal Han had four sons and one daughter, named Rind, Lashar, Korai, Hoat, and Jato Bibi. These fives are supposedly the founder of five great tribes of Baloch; Rinds, Lasharies, Jatoes, Hoates, Koraes. The Baloch epic poetry refers to Jalal Han as the ruler of all Baloch. Baloch writers have paid great tribute to Mir Jalal Han as the “founding father of the Baloch nation,” who formed the first Baloch confederacy in the present territory of Balochistan.

In the middle of the 15th century, due to environmental changes and economic pressure, some tribes, mostly Rinds and Lasharies under Mir Chaker Rind’s leadership, invaded Kharan, Las Bella, and Kalat and reached Kachi plains. Mir Chaker through Bolan pass reached Savi (Sibi) and Goahram via Mulla Pass, reached Gandhavah. This time for Baloch was a golden time. In about 1487 A.D, Chaker was Balochistan, from Makran to Savi, political and economic wellbeing fortified Baloch culture, literature (oral poetry), and tradition. Then the civil war started between Rinds and Lashar headed by Mir Chaker Rind and Goahram Lashari, which continued for about 30 years. Baloch became weak and could not defend their conquered land. Mir Chaker left for Punjab, and Goahram migrated to Sindh.

Mir Chaker Khan, who did not have the political imagination or skill to convert the tribal confederacy into a unified political entity, was also responsible for igniting a civil war. Baloch loose confederations always prevented establishing a permanent Kingdom. After the fall of the first Baloch confederacy in the 16th century, we see Balochistan divided into three states:

1, Makuran. 2, Dodai Confederacy of Derajat, 3, Kalat Confederacy or the Khanate of Balochistan.